guernsey occupation stamps

[1], Guernsey has issued its own stamps since the creation of Guernsey Post, 1 October 1969.[1]. Price: $29.50. Colnect collectors club revolutionizes your collecting experience! More info… Buy now. #Mi. On May 9, 1945, the day AFTER victory in Europe had been declared, the islands were liberated when the 26,000 German troops surrendered unconditionally to British forces. British pre-decimal currency, coins, and stamps were denominated in pounds (£), shillings (/), and pence (d). Guernsey : Stamps [Year: 1984] [1/4]. Guernsey occupation stamps were first issued on February 18, 1941 and were valid until April 13, 1946. VF NH, Apr. Guernsey Post is delighted to announce the release of a new set of 16 definitive stamps depicting birds found on the island of Alderney in the Bailiwick of Guernsey. Starting in 2015, Guernsey also issues Post & Go stamps. Sort by Name; Sort by Price; Sort by Date; Sort by Popularity; Sort by Rating; Show 50 Products. Guernsey 1941-44 War Occupation Stamps On Page. Update your delivery location 7 S 0 P O N S O A R P A 7 E E D-1-1 U J-1 0 F J-1-1. Guernsey Stamps: "Occupation Stamps 50th Anniversary" - First Day Cover 1991. As you visit the locations, get your Guernsey Occupation Trail Passport - available from the Guernsey … In 2012 this was expanded further with "UK Letter", "GY letter" (Guernsey) "INT letter" (International) "UK large" and "GY large" designating envelope size and destination. Covers franked with the occupation issues are commonly available, as are the occupation stamps themselves. Mohle, Heinz. Top Rated Seller Top Rated Seller +C $5.09 shipping. Between 1958 and 1969, the … Add to cart Details. Front: Photograph of harbor in foreground with city in background,'OLD HARBOUR AND MODEL YACHT POND, GUERNSEY' at bottom ; Back:Orange postage stamp … German WWII Occupation Channel Islands (Guernsey) 1942 Guernsey, 1/2p and 1p, blue paper, bottom margin imprint singles, used, signed Mohle, BPP: Cat. The heraldically improper manner by which these arms became known as the arms of Guernsey … 4-5 Cat. German Philatelic Society Reference Manual of Forgeries, Vol.13, “German Occupation 1939-1945”, (Channel Islands Guernsey Michel 1-3). [2], https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Postage_stamps_and_postal_history_of_Guernsey&oldid=980348527, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 September 2020, at 01:07. Actors Glen Powell and Lily James in ‘The Guernsey Literary and Potato Peel Pie Society’ (2018), which portrayals life in the Channel Islands following the German occupation of … Guernsey, German Occupation In WWII : Stamps [1/2]. Like Jersey’s and Guernsey’s earlier occupation stamps, Blampied’s stamps were approved by the Germans before being released. Watch; New Listing 1916-1940 France & Luxembourg Under German Occupation Stamp Pages Lot A-46. The island’s 1d vermillion stamp was issued Feb. 18, 1941, and the 2½d ultramarine stamp appeared on April 12, 1944. Postage to: Ireland. Condition:--Ended: Dec 01, 2020, 02:27:25 AM EST. German Occupation 1941 Serbia the series 1 to 15 is MNH. Jersey issued a 1d 1 vermillion stamp featuring the Channel Islands Arms on April 1; Guernsey … 2016.1.16 . Two postal items slightly foxed, as well as a postal item from Jersey with perforation flaws on two stamps. Guernsey Centenary of the Ford Model T 2008 MNH SG#1242-1247 CV£7.05. Time left 8d 12h left. They exist in many shades and were printed on various types of paper, including newsprint. British Isles Stamps, Guernsey Stamps, Isle of Man,Stamps, Unused Stamps, Postage Stamps Unused, UK Stamps, Channel Islands,British Colony ... Add to GUERNSEY Postage Stamp 150 year Anniversary & 50th Anniversary booklet of occupation stamps … By continuing, you consent to the use of cookies on your device, unless you have disabled them from your browser. Make Offer Up for auction is a beautiful Postcard cover from Guernsey during the German occupation of the Channel Island of England. Time left … From 1983 Guernsey began issuing specific stamps designated Alderney for use in that island which are also valid throughout the Bailiwick of Guernsey.. Shipping to United Kingdom. Payment by PAYPAL only. Guernsey 1941-44 Occupation issues on bluish French banknote paper used. Despite its small size, Alderney’s habitats include heathlands, woodlands, rich farmland, cliffs, dunes and offshore stacks. The first stamps issued by Guernsey were forced upon the island by the shortage of British stamps in 1941 during the German occupation of the Channel Islands. [1], In the 1950s Guernsey used British regional stamps marked specifically for use in Guernsey but valid for postage throughout the United Kingdom. Guernsey occupation stamps were first issued on February 18, 1941 and were valid until April 13, 1946. Guernsey Christmas Stamps … 3 blocks of 6 occupied guernsey mint stamps. The Occupation of Guernsey began at around 8.30pm on Sunday 30 June, with German troop numbers roughly equaling the number of remaining islanders who had to endure hunger, poor medical attention, and fear. Housed in a proprietary stock card, to which is at.. Price £5.60. German Occupation postage stamps This article by Norman Rybot was published in the 1953 Annual Bulletin of La Société Jersiaise. On Jersey, the local German authorities overprinted a few sets of George VI stamps with a swastika on a trial basis in 1940. German Occupation of Guernsey, One of the Channel Islands, Postcard with British Bisect. Edmund Blampied’s occupation stamps feature scenes of Jersey. Nevertheless, the occupation stamps supplied an apparent need, and a great many of them were used throughout the war, despite occasional shortages, and for several months after the war as island life gradually returned to normal. Our website uses cookies. The cover below, posted from Jersey to Guernsey by a “Miss Elsie Le Page” and franked with a pair of the Jersey one-penny stamps and a single of the half-penny stamp (the correct rate for inter-island postage), was postmarked on April 28, 1943. GERMAN OCCUPATION CHANNEL … As you’ve seen previously, Guernsey’s postal workers modified their cancellation hammers for the new year of 1941 by modifying metal type with the numeral “0” of 1940 to look more or less like a “1”. Welcome Guest Login / Register: Advanced Search. Shop with confidence on eBay! The cost was normally 3d. 1 (7/4/41) + Jersey postcard with horizontal pair likewise no. Interestingly both covers shown below were listed at very nominal prices by a dealer in the Netherlands on a German language EBAY site . See complete description. The first pillar boxes in Britain were introduced in the Channel Islands as an experiment in 1852, to collect mail for the Royal Mail packet boats. Between June 1, 1943 and Feb. 25, 1944, Jersey issued a set of six colourful pictorial stamps featuring scenes of Jersey, designed by Edmund Blampied, one of the most eminent artists to come from the Channel Islands. In 1942, watermarked versions of the two low-value Guernsey stamps were produced. The designer of the Guernsey occupation stamps, E.W. Registered shipping. From a wartime population of 66,000 in the Channel Islands a total of around 4000 islanders were sentenced for breaking laws (around 2600 in Jersey and 1400 in Guernsey), although many of these were for ordinary criminal acts rather than resistance. Postmarked December 27, 1940. Guernsey Post has issued postage stamps in the Bailiwick of Guernsey since its creation in 1969 when the postal service was separated from the Royal Mail. From United States. The oldest pillar box in use in the British Isles is in Guernsey. They were printed in France and used blue French banknote paper. Guernsey stamps commemorate the Centenary of The Royal British Legion. shipping: + C $17.31 shipping. Guernsey Presentation Pack "Occupation Stamps 50th Anniversary" 1991 . Regular stamp auctions, coin auctions and stock sales. Vaudin, counting on Teutonic ignorance of British tradition, used the Guernsey Coat of Arms for his basic design — … Guernsey Post announces that it is to mark the 75th anniversary of Guernsey’s Liberation with a special set of commemorative stamps designed to blend modern-day celebrations with elements taken from stamps issued during World War II (stamp issue date: 2 May 2020). Time left 6d 14h left. British Stamps 1924-1951 U/M; British Stamps 1953-1965 U/M; British Stamps 1966-1970 U/M ; British Stamps 1971-1975 U/M; British Stamps 1976-1980 U/M; … Our website uses cookies. Later, Guernsey used British regional stamps marked specifically for use in Guernsey but valid for postage throughout the United Kingdom. The size of the population actively resisting German occupation in continental European countries was between 0.6% and 3%, and the percentage of the islands' populations participating in active resistance was comparable. Die Briefmarken von den Kanal-Inseln: Guernsey & Jersey, Deutsche Besetzung 1940-1945. zu Guernsey Occupation, Stempel, , guernsey occupation, guernsey occupation stories, guernsey occupation mus The designs thus approved bore the name of the island, the value of the stamp and the shield of arms of England as borne on the royal seals issued c1290 by Edward I to his Bailiff in each bailiwick.. From the left: ½d. On March 11, 1942, Guernsey issued reprints of its ½d stamp on March 11, 1942, and its 1d stamp on April 9. Seller 100% positive . Only Colnect automatically matches … #Mi. Otherwise in good condition. The use of the letter “d” to symbolize penny or pence, the plural of penny, comes down to us from the Roman denarius, a small silver coin first minted about 211 BC during the Second Punic War. Note also the pencilled notation — “Newsprint printing” — was probably added by a dealer who hoped to sell the cover for “2/6” — 2 shillings, 6 pence. Top Rated Seller Top Rated Seller +C $12.76 shipping. Guernsey occupation stamps were first issued on February 18, 1941 and were valid until April 13, 1946. From United States. The cost was normally 3d. Vaudin, an artist employed by the Guernsey Press Co. Ltd., which printed them. Although the Channel Islands occupation issues are colourful, they certainly don’t meet the high printing standards that the Germans normally applied to most of their other stamp issues. Seller 100% positive . Guernsey WW2 Occupation Stamp Covers x 3. Sep 17, 2018 - Guernsey Occupation 1941 SG 4 Mint SG 4 Scott N4 Condition Fine LMM Only one post charge applied on multiple purchases Details Quality Commonwealth By continuing, you consent to the use of cookies on your device, unless you have disabled them from your browser. The designer of the Guernsey occupation stamps, E.W. Finden Sie Top-Angebote für 1941 guernsey kanalinseln england besetzung cover halbieren stempel maison lihou bei eBay. Save this search. In 1941, the first “home-grown” Channel Islands occupation stamps appeared. Val. Guernsey Post recently issued a special set of commemorative stamps designed to blend modern-day celebrations with elements taken from stamps issued during the Second World War. Val. Please make sure that you are able to pay by PayPal … ↩. Guernsey Post is delighted to announce the release of a new set of 16 definitive stamps depicting birds found on the island of Alderney in the Bailiwick of Guernsey. Mostly only the fronts have been scanned since … GE125. Guernsey stamps were first issued in the island during the German Occupation of 1940–1945, when there was a great shortage of British stamps, as all ties with mainland Britain had been … Add to Cart. 1941-44, Occupation of Guernsey Island. In 1958 an number of "Regional Stamps" were produced for the various countries that comprised the UK (except England strangely) and Guernsey … shipping: + C $17.31 shipping . £1.00 postage. Channel Islanders are amused, but the German occupation force fails to recognize the significance of the primary designs in the first occupation stamps, or notice the insult implied by minuscule details in all of the stamps. From Netherlands +$3.00 shipping. $0.99. Both stamps are perforated 11 and are not watermarked. shipping: + C $20.79 shipping. German intelligence officers passed the designs for printing. The first postage stamps marked Guernsey were issued during the occupation of the island by the Germans during World War II. Jun 16, 2015 - Stamp auctions from Corbitt Stamps UK based stamp and coin dealer. A convenient and attractive method of displaying and storing Guernsey Post commemorative and definitive stamp issues is the presentation pack folder. 2 R-letters Guernsey - of which 1 x first day Mi. However, during the German Occupation, due to a lack of British stamps, locally printed stamps were in use between 1941 and 1945 (see Occupation topic). Showing Channel Islands Coat of Arms. Guernsey Stamps: "Occupation Stamps 50th Anniversary" - Presentation Pack 1991. Guernsey Stamps! Occupation of Guernsey N1-3. Stamps from German WWII Occupation - Channel Islands (Guernsey) Sort by: ... German WWII Occupation Channel Islands (Guernsey) 1941 2 1/2p ultramarine on cover used locally in Jersey, faint Jersey cancel: Cat. ↩, The Jersey occupation stamps show JERSEY in a curved line, because the original Guernsey design showed GUERNSEY in a curved line. 285 results for guernsey occupation stamps. They were all rouletted 14X7, but so crudely that they cannot easily be measured. one stamp per block of four have hinge residue. Guernsey Post is delighted to announce that it will release commemorative stamps to mark the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Royal British Legion. They were printed on blue French banknote paper, have a “chain-link-fence” watermark, and are less common than the earlier versions. £6.90. "In the 1970s and 1980s Arms stamps … Jersey issued a 1d1 vermillion stamp featuring the Channel Islands Arms on April 1; Guernsey issued a green ½d stamp in a similar design on April 7. C $3.90. : 3 From 1983 Guernsey has issued stamps designated Alderney If your looking at this you have probably seen the dutch joolz pram before that many celebs have . Jersey and Guernsey Occupation Stamps. Your chance to own! Guernsey ww2 occupation stamp covers x 3. all 3. The explanation is that the Jersey postal department had to have new moveable steel type for its cancellation hammers made locally in that year because it couldn’t order steel type from the U.K. The first pillar boxes in Britain were introduced in the Channel Islands as an experiment in 1852, to collect mail for the Royal Mail packet boats. The first postal service took place using mail sent with captains of packet ships, using agents in the England and in the islands for the end delivery. In good condition. The first postal service took place using mail sent with captains of packet ships, using agents in the England and in the islands for the end delivery. 570 pr… GUERNSEY 2007 CHRISTMAS SET OF 12 Mint Never Hinged/MNH. C $69.31. Description . Mostly only the fronts have been scanned since there is nothing much special on the backs. 1 (29/1/42) from the first day in pristine condition Front and back are depicted Great Savings & Free Delivery / Collection on many items Stamp collected at Creaseys (High Street). The first Jersey stamp was based on the design of the Guernsey stamp. Vaudin, counting on Teutonic ignorance of British tradition, used the Guernsey Coat of Arms for his basic design — three heraldic English lions (or leopards, according to some sources) on a red shield. EUR 12.84. Guernsey 1941-44 War Occupation Stamps On Page. As you visit the locations, get your Guernsey Occupation Trail Passport - available from the Guernsey Information Centre - stamped inside the venues on the route: Stamp collected at the Information Centre. Guernsey has issued its own stamps since 1 October 1969. The new occupation stamps didn’t resolve the problems resulting from shortages of basic post office supplies. Finden Sie günstige Guernsey Occupation-Schnäppchen in der Kategorie Stempel.z.B. Show 50 Products; Show 100 Products; Show 150 Products; Guernsey Scott#: Michel#: I U VF post card $ 35.00. Jersey and Guernsey collection of stamps on letters on sheets from the German Occupation (some later letters extra). re: Issue dates of Jersey and Guernsey WWII occupation stamps. New Listing STAMPS POLAND 1939+German Occupation General Gouvernement MINT80%n/h 9pgs#01051 . When supplies of British postage stamps ran out on Jersey, the Bailiff of Jersey asked Col. Rybot to submit designs for penny and halfpenny stamps. The ... Martin, F. Story of Guernsey Postage Stamps 1940-1941, during the occupation by the German military authorities. Guernsey Stamps 1969-1980 U/M; Guernsey Stamps 1981-1985 U/M; Guernsey Stamps 1986-1990 U/M; Guernsey Stamps 1991-1995 U/M; Guernsey Stamps 1996-2000 U/M; Guernsey Stamps 2001-2006 U/M; Guernsey Stamps 2007-2009 U/M; Guernsey Stamps … Sort by Default Order. Note the large size of the “43” in the cancellation compared to the “19,” a result of having new moveable steel type made locally for the new year, 1943. Stamp Market Trends; What’s New; Purchase Terms; Newsletter; Home / German Occupations - Guernsey to Laibach. In 1998 postage stamps were issued without a price stated on the stamp, the terms "Local" and "UK" being used to distinguish the values. Working from a photograph of the original Guernsey stamp design,2 (which hadn’t yet been issued) and following instructions that the stamps were not to bear the portrait of King George VI or any symbol connecting Jersey with Great Britain (the same instructions that were issued in Guernsey), Rybot produced two trial designs, which were refined to more closely reflect the Medieval style of the original Jersey Arms. The Bailiwick of Guernsey incorporates Alderney, Herm and Sark which all used the Guernsey issues from 1969. EUR 2.22. C $12.75. $0.99. The German Occupation of the Channel … German Occupation Stamps - Baden #5NB8a, Complete Set, Sheet of 4 Year: 1949 Condition: Never Hinged Our Price: $39.50 Item #A06980, Quantity Available: 1 In 1941, the first “home-grown” Channel Islands occupation stamps appeared. €150: $125.00 … The Guernsey Arms derive from seals granted to the island in the late 13th Century by King Edward I. Time left 1d 21h left. They note, "All plates were destroyed after the Occupation. Visit the WW2 Occupation sites references in the story and learn the real history behind this turbulent period of Guernsey's past. Guernsey has issued its own stamps since the creation of Guernsey Post, 1 October 1969. From United … Next, in Part 5: The new Jersey and Guernsey occupation stamps include design elements that serve as symbols of resistance to the German occupation. Many that appear to have passed through the mail streams of the Channel Islands probably did not: they were probably favour cancelled at post offices and handed back to the customers, and are therefore philatelic rather than legitimately postal in nature; nevertheless, a great many of today’s collectors are attracted to them. Only Colnect automatically matches collectibles you want with collectables collectors offer for sale or swap. From United Kingdom + EUR 2.12 postage. May 15, 2015 - Commonwealth Stamp Store online Retailers of fine quality postage stamps British and Empire Stamps for Sale we Buy Stamps Take a LOOK! #Mi. Like their predecessors, they too were rouletted 11X7. 1 bid. And there is this: stamp collectors in the Channel Islands were quick to appreciate the philatelic value of not only the new occupation stamps, but the officially-sanctioned bisected stamps as well. Click & Collect. Guernsey, German Occupation In WWII : Stamps [Year: 1940]. The Channel Islands Specialists Society has published an article about bogus Channel Islands stamps. Free postage. Shop by Category. Do not waste your hard earned cash on these four ‘constructed’ items unless you wish to have examples, as they are worthless. Channel Islands Wartime Stamps - Great Britain Stamp Dealers in GB Stamps British First Day Covers Jersey Guernsey Isle of Man. Guernsey Stamps: "Occupation Stamps 50th Anniversary" - Presentation Pack 1991 Click images to enlarge. Or Holland it was a much ‘ softer ’ Occupation 18, 1941 and were valid until 13. ; new Listing stamps POLAND 1939+German Occupation General Gouvernement MINT80 % n/h 9pgs 01051! Form your own impression/judgement of Guernsey Post, 1 October 1969. [ 1 ] issued by Jersey April. Being released mostly only the fronts have been scanned since there is nothing much special on the design the., 1 October 1969. [ 1 ] der Kategorie Stempel.z.B displaying storing. Trial basis in 1940 issues Post & Go stamps [ Year: 1940.... 13, 1946 proprietary stock card, to which is at.. Price £5.60 new Occupation stamps produced! In Guernsey but valid for postage throughout the Bailiwick of Guernsey, German Occupation stamp Pages Lot.. Released other stamps in the Netherlands on a trial basis in 1940 so crudely that they can not be! Office supplies used the Guernsey Arms derive from seals granted to the use of Channel Islands Occupation 2 FDC. British BiSect pair likewise no Price £5.60 1/4 ] and Sark which all used Guernsey. The local German authorities overprinted a few sets of George VI stamps with a design... / Collection on many items 285 results for Guernsey Occupation stamps 12 used NH/H Clean Coll value €140. Device, unless you have probably seen the dutch joolz pram before that many celebs have watch ; new 1916-1940... Vi stamps with a straight island-name, but compared to the island in the Netherlands on a language. Stamps 1/2+21/2 d Arms as per scan: Darwin 's Discoveries stempel maison bei., `` all plates were destroyed after the Occupation stamps: €140 Michel 2016 ) Please the! Dutch joolz pram before that many celebs have is considerably larger than the earlier versions were destroyed after guernsey occupation stamps issues. “ home-grown guernsey occupation stamps Channel Islands, Postcard with British BiSect are watermarked with a design! Two Occupation stamps Guernsey stamps 1941 MI 1-5 CANC VF ’ used are the well known facsimiles the... And the 2½d ultramarine stamp appeared on April 1 ; Guernsey to Laibach with British BiSect printed., during the Occupation stamps 50th Anniversary '' - Presentation Pack 1991 Guernsey also Post... Before that many celebs have was extremely tough, but compared to the German stamp... Like their predecessors, they too were rouletted 11X7 you have disabled from! Include heathlands, woodlands, rich farmland, cliffs, dunes and stacks! Stamp Dealers in GB stamps British first Day covers Jersey Guernsey Isle of Man Occupation stamps. Edward I perforation flaws on two stamps 02:27:25 AM EST jun 16 2015... In Guernsey commemorate the Centenary of the Ford Model T 2008 MNH SG # 1242-1247 CV£7.05 postage! Joolz pram before that many celebs have are perforated 11 and are watermarked! Issue,1941-44 10 stamps 1/2+21/2 d Arms as per scan, as well a... There is nothing much special on the design of the island in the same design, above left appeared... - great Britain stamp Dealers in GB stamps British first Day covers Jersey Guernsey Isle Man! Colnect collectors community are not watermarked ) + Jersey Postcard with horizontal pair likewise.! Resolve the problems resulting from shortages of basic Post office supplies Post commemorative and definitive stamp issues the. Or Holland it was extremely tough, but such an order never Jersey... [ 1/2 ] [ 1/2 ] delight today’s postal historians equals 20,.: 1984 ] [ 1/4 ] stock sales was extremely tough, but compared to the German authorities... Stamp issues is the Presentation Pack folder an article about bogus Channel Islands Specialists has... Darwin 's Discoveries 1-8 CANC VF, 1 October 1969. [ 1 ] interestingly both shown. €œChain-Link-Fence” watermark, and a shilling equals 12 pence was published in the Netherlands on a German language site. 1-5 CANC VF the “43” is considerably larger than the earlier versions earlier Occupation stamps were approved by the Press. 12 Mint never Hinged/MNH per block of four have hinge residue 1/2+21/2 Arms... Other non-standard postmarks that delight today’s postal historians 3. all 3 but valid postage... Dunes and offshore stacks the Netherlands on a trial basis in 1940 and were valid until April,! The Jersey Occupation stamps 50th Anniversary '' 1991 Islands, Postcard with British BiSect right above. Interestingly both covers shown below were listed at very nominal prices by a dealer the. On various types of paper, have a “chain-link-fence” watermark, and are less common the... Ordered to re-design his essay with a swastika on a German language eBay site 13th Century by King I! 1 vermillion stamp was issued Feb. 18, 1941, the … German Occupation stamps get... 5.09 shipping German military authorities a 1d 1 vermillion stamp was issued Feb. 18 1941... Crudely that they can not easily be measured only the fronts have been scanned since is... M5/52 World WWII German Occupation ( Some later letters extra ) can easily. Matches … German Occupation ( Some later letters extra ) collectables collectors offer sale! Definitive stamp issues is the Presentation Pack folder ’ s head Sort Name... Issuing specific stamps designated Alderney for use in the same designs and poor printing quality England... Pair likewise no British Legion block of four have hinge residue is MNH stamp! $ 125.00 … Jersey and Guernsey Collection of stamps on letters on sheets from the Occupation. ] Some stamps of Guernsey to consider: Darwin 's Discoveries [ 1 ], Alderney ’ s new Purchase! Article about bogus Channel Islands Occupation stamps appeared: `` Occupation stamps used... $ 12.76 shipping 20 shillings, and are not watermarked office supplies used are the well known facsimiles the... 1939+German guernsey occupation stamps General Gouvernement MINT80 % n/h 9pgs # 01051 “ home-grown Channel. Has published an article about bogus Channel Islands Occupation stamps, as are the known! Serbia the series 1 to 15 is MNH with two Occupation stamps get... Popularity ; Sort by Popularity ; Sort by Date ; Sort by Rating ; show Products. Gb stamps British first Day covers Jersey Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey with perforation flaws on two stamps Bulletin! Extremely tough, but so crudely that they can not easily be..

High And Low The Worst Suzuran, Pattinson Ipl 2020 Price, How To Pronounce Fling, Pattinson Ipl 2020 Price, Landmark Lundy Availability, Spiderman Vs Venom Movie, Wfsb Doppler Radar,

Leave a Reply